19th century

Frontier Living

By Edwin Tunis

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Describes the daily lives of American pioneers who explored and settled the territories west of the Appalachians.
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Early Ice Houses

The inhabitants of early Fredericksburg enjoyed a cool drink during the hot summer months, just as we do today -- hence the massive excavations referred to as ice houses. These brick-lined, wood-floored structures were generally 15 to 20 feet in depth and 12 to 15 feet in diameter.

Dairy products, meats, and other perishables had to be kept cool, and what better way to do it than to cut the ice from the Rappahannock or a local pond during January, store it in a circular, subterranean cavity, cover it with straw, and preserve it for the warm months ahead.

The Aquia Train Robbery

This account has been compiled from the Free Lance newspaper of Fredericksburg, Virginia, October 16, 1894 through September 27, 1895, by Robert A. Hodge.

Travel: Copyright-Free Illustrations for Lovers of History

By Bobbie Kalman

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Etchings with descriptive text provide a look at various modes of transportation--boats, sleighs, coaches, railroads, and even horseless carriages--of the past.

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Home Life: Copyright-Free Illustrations For Lovers of History

By Bobbie Kalman

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Home Life portrays both the joys and hardships of family life. The authentic 19th century etchings include images of work in and around the home, and of families at work and play.

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Frontier Life: Copyright-Free Illustrations for Lovers of History

By Bobbie Kalman

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Etchings and accompanying text depict various aspects of frontier life, including homes, hunting, and frontier towns.

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Early Christmas

By Bobbie Kalman

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Topics covered: How Christmas has changed -- Christmas in the wilderness -- Christmas at a trading post -- The story of a settler's first Christmas -- The religious side of Christmas -- Christmas in an early town -- Christmas fun in a pioneer village -- Decorations before the Christmas tree -- Wreaths, garlands, mistletoe and kissing boughs -- Christmas - family time -- Parlour games, pantomimes, ghost stories --Christmas fun in the great outdoors -- Love and marriage, Christmas style -- Preparations for Christmas -- Christmas dinner - trapped or bought? -- A change for children - People start to treat children as children -- The changing faces of Santa Claus
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Early Village Life

By Bobbie Kalman

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The farm began as a self-sufficient unit with neighbors sharing what resources they had with one another. As people congregated in an area, a village grew and businesses sprang up to meet the demand of a growing population.

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Food for the Settler

By Bobbie Kalman

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Nature's bounty usually provided the settler with everything they needed. Whatever these new farmers didn't know, the Native peoples taught them. Food for the settler shows how they caught it, grew it, and prepared it.

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