Homework Helper: The Plains Indians

Where Are the Great Plains?

The Great Plains are the part of North America east of the Rocky Mountains and west of the Mississippi River. The American states that are part of this region are Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The land there is flat and includes prairie, steppe and grassland.

Who Are the Plains Indians?

There were many differently-named tribes who lived on the Great Plains when the Europeans came, but they mostly shared a common culture because of living in similar environments. The buffalo (bison) was a major source of food along with other game and cultivated crops. They also gathered wild fruits and vegetables. Nomadic (roaming) tribes lived in large teepees, often painted with religious symbols. Tribes that did not roam often lived in earthen or grass lodges and would grow crops.

Before the Spaniards came, Plains tribes would generally migrate by putting their Nations of the Plainspossessions on a travois  that was pulled by their dogs and head out to follow the game. After the Europeans re-introduced horses to the New World in the 1600s and traded them to the tribes, they used those instead. The tribes also used horses to help them hunt and make war. Some tribes, such as the Lakota, spoke the Sioux language and shared in that larger culture. The Cheyenne tribe was part of the Algonquian group--somewhat similar in language and customs to the Powhatan Indians in Virginia. The Comanche were part of a different language tradition all together—the Uto-Aztecan, which included the language of the Aztecs.  Unlike the Cheyenne, the Comanche were organized as smaller bands, not as one large nation. Some worked with the U.S. Army as scouts and some raided pioneer settlements.

Indeed, during the Westward Expansion in the 1800s, settlers and Plains tribes came into conflict often. It was a time of war. Many lives were lost, and the tribes were eventually restricted to reservations of land that did not mesh with their nomadic way of life. Some rebelled. More lives were lost. To this day, some descendents of the Plains tribes live on those reservations but others have chosen to live out in the wider world while still maintaining their connections to their tribes through organizations, such as the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes.

Below are some resources that can help you learn more about the tribes of the Great Plains:

Articles Online

Get online, teacher-friendly reference material on the Plains Indians. You will need a CRRL card to access these databases.

Britannica Public Library Edition for Kids: search Plains Indians

Infotrac, Junior Edition: “Plains Indians,” in Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature

Kids Info Bits: Topic Heading: Native Americans (Great Plains)
There is a short article on the Bannock tribe (under Reference), basic instructions for a Plains Indian shield craft (under Magazines), and images of costumes & ceremonies and a buffalo hunt.

Books

Daily Life in a Plains Village, 1868 by Michael Bad Hand Terry
“Readers will meet Real Bird and his family, part of a Northern Cheyenne tribe in southeastern Montana. Each member has an important role: Men prepare to become warriors and hunters, while women learn to raise crops and build a home-a tipi-from poles and buffalo hides. The clothes the family wears, from elaborate ceremonial headdresses to colorful beaded moccasins; the foods they eat; the games they play; the crafts and jewelry they make; and the spiritual rituals they perform are among the many topics included.”

The Great Plains Indians: Daily Life in the 1700s by Mary Englar
A rather short book (24 pages). Contents: The Great Plains and its people -- Social structure -- Homes -- Food -- Clothing -- Trading and economy -- Leisure time -- Traditions -- Passing on traditions.

Houses of Hide and Earth: Native Dwellings: Plains Indians by Bonnie Shemie
The Plains Indians built their houses with the only materials they had: the skins of the buffalo they hunted or the soil dug from the earth around them. Homes grew larger and more varied with the arrival of the horse. The earth lodge, dating from AD 700, was larger than the tipi of buffalo hide. Both were laid out according to religious beliefs and symbols, as were arbors, burial platforms, sweat lodges, and the impressive structure for the Sun Dance.

The Lakota by Michael Burgan
Talks about the Lakota’s history, beliefs, way of life, and how they live today. Has a time line, a glossary and a recipe for a Sioux soup. The library also owns similar books on these Plains tribes: the Arapaho; the Cheyenne; the Comanche; the Crow; the Blackfoot; the Mandan; the Pawnee and the Sioux.

Nations of the Plains by Bobbie Kalman
A short book that gives an overview of tribes associated with the Great Plains. See also her book, Life in a Plains Camp.

People of the Buffalo: How the Plains Indians Lived by Maria Campbell
This book tells how the Plains Indians lived, including their beliefs, ceremonies and feeling for family life.

Projects about the Plains Indians by Marian Broida
Readers learn about the Cheyenne, the Lakota, and the Hidatsa as they work on crafts related to daily Native American life. Includes instructions for a moccasin game; models of a travois, a shield, and a bull-boat; cooking pemmican; making a felt pouch; growing sunflowers; and drying squash.

The Sioux: People of the Great Plains by Anne Todd
Provides an overview of the past and present lives of people from the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota Nations, which combined is known as the Sioux Nation, and traces their customs, family life, history, culture, and relations with the United States government.

Video

The Yankton Sioux
Extensive filming on location takes the viewer to reservations where children and elders discuss what it means to be a Native American today. The viewer will come to understand more about these cultures through photographs, film footage, tribal music, crafts, and ceremonies. Based on a book for students from Chelsea House publishers.

On the Web

These sites have information on the Plains Indians.

Smithsonian Photographic Collection: Great Plains Indians
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/ienhtml/tribes.html#ps
Amazing photos, mostly from the 1800s or very early 1900s, that can work with school projects.

The Plains
http://www.ahsd25.k12.il.us/curriculum/nativeamericans/plains.html
Has a fun series of quizzes and activities on life for the Indians of the Plains. From Arlington Heights School District 25.

The Plains Indians
http://inkido.indiana.edu/w310work/romac/plains.html
A quick look at the Plains Indians for early grade elementary students—their artwork, clothing, food, housing, and religion. Includes a vocabulary section.  Most of the information for the site came from the book, What Do We Know About The Plains Indians?, by Dr. Colin Taylor.  From The Orchard School in Indianapolis, Indiana.