The 2008 Summer Olympics were held in Beijing, the capital of China. While China has been in the news recently and people are aware of some current events occurring in the country, not many realize that China has a long and complicated history full of changing dynasties. To mark the 2008 Beijing Olympics, this second article of two will introduce people to the dynasties that mark the last 729 years of Chinese civilization.
Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)
By Christie Hoerneman, CRRL Staff
The 2008 Summer Olympics were held in Beijing, the capital of China. While China has been in the news recently and people are aware of some current events occurring in the county, not many realize that China has a long and complicated history full of changing dynasties. To mark the 2008 Beijing Olympics, this first article of two introduces readers to the dynasties that mark the first 2800 years of Chinese civilization.
Shang Dynasty (c.1600-1050 BC)
By Nick Nelson, CRRL Intern
History scholars and genealogists can find much grist for their research mills with the HeritageQuest database. The full text of scholarly articles, state and military records, lengthy family reference books and more can be searched and saved for later contemplation.
The 2009 Virginia Scottish Games and Festival will be held September 5 and 6th at Great Meadow State Park in The Plains, VA. There will be feats of strength, traditional music and dance, dog trials, a gathering of the clans, and much more. Other nearby festivals are being held this fall in Williamsburg, Alexandria, and Crownsville, Maryland.
XII. That each Indian King, and Queen have equall power to govern their owne people and none to have greater power then other, except the Queen of Pomunky to whom severall scattered Indians doe now againe owne their antient Subjection, and are agreed to come in and plant themselves under power and government, whoe with her are alsoe hereby included into this present League and treatie of peace, & are to keep, and observe the same towards the said Queen in all things as her Subjects, as well as towards the English.
In the summer of 1942, the Japanese were winning their war with the United States. They had sunk or crippled America's battleship fleet at Pearl Harbor, and snapped up a chain of islands across the Pacific which could, if fortified, form an impenetrable barrier to the U.S. Navy. Now the Imperial Japanese Navy was looking for a knockout blow, to destroy the American aircraft carriers before American industry replaced its losses.
After bouncing all night in cold, cramped steel boats, then waiting all day in broiling heat, the men of the Allied Expeditionary Force got the word: shortly after sundown, they would finally be getting off their floating, seasick prisons.
All they had to do then was run straight into machine gun fire, smash the Nazi army, and liberate Europe.
At times, a sense of things past seems to envelop tourists and residents who stroll quietly along Fredericksburg streets at twilight or drive through a countryside still scarred by the battles of the Civil War. Some swear that more than a general sense of the history of the place overwhelms them. At twilight, at midnight, or even at high noon, specters and shades of those whose place this was may return to their homes and habits to pray, to flirt, to dine, and to stroll, to fire their rifles and march in formation, or lie wounded in hospital beds, wearing uniforms of gray or blue.
When Christmas morning dawned in December of 1862, the sun rose over the battered town of Fredericksburg. Once a bustling colonial port, more recently a pleasant stop for travelers by coach and boat, on this day, the little town lay in ruins. And, if the brick and mortar firmaments suffered such catastrophic damage, what of the flesh and bone of the human armies that had battled there mere weeks before? What became of the wounded who survived the first days of battle?
Brilliant, Beautiful Light!
On May 24, 1852, the General Assembly of Virginia passed an act incorporating the Fredericksburg Gas Company. This act authorized William Hargrave White to sell stock at $50 per share to raise not less than $15,000 nor more than $100,000 to be used for the purchase of up to three acres of land for the construction and operation of a works to manufacture, from bituminous coal, gas to be distributed and used for private illumination.